2000 Mummified Rams’ Heads Found in an Egyptian Temple

In the heart of Abydos, Egypt, an American archaeological mission has uncovered an astonishing revelation that echoes through time and history. This remarkable discovery took place in the revered Temple of King Ramesses II, revealing a collection of over 2,000 2000 Mummified Rams and decomposed ram heads. These relics are believed to be offerings to the mighty pharaoh, a testament to the enduring sanctification of Ramesses II that spanned a millennium after his passing. But that’s not all; within the temple’s sacred precincts, another extraordinary find emerged, a much older palatial structure dating back around 4,000 years. Join us on this captivating journey through ancient Egypt as we unveil the mysteries surrounding these mummified ram heads and the Temple of King Ramesses II.

Ramesses II: The Great Pharaoh

King Ramesses II, often hailed as Ramesses the Great, was one of the most powerful and successful pharaohs in ancient Egypt. His reign from 1279 to 1213 BC during the New Kingdom period marked an era of monumental achievement and conquest. Ramesses II was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, renowned for his military prowess that expanded the Egyptian empire and fortified its borders.

A Timeless Reverence

A preserved head of a ram, mummified. ( Source )

The head of the mission, Dr. Sameh Iskandar, unveiled the astounding truth behind these mummified ram heads. They belong to the Ptolemaic era, spanning from 332 BC to 30 AD, a period of transition and cultural amalgamation. The discovery in the temple is nothing short of extraordinary, suggesting that the reverence for Ramesses II endured for an astonishing 1000 years after his demise.

Beyond Ram Heads: A Menagerie of Ancient Offerings

A ram’s mummy, likely composed of bones and stuffing, with visible horns. It’s enveloped in linen, featuring painted details like its eyes. Discovered in Thebes, Egypt. ( Source )

Dr. Mustafa Waziri, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Archeology, added another layer to this already intriguing story. Besides the ram heads, the mission unearthed a trove of mummified animals. Among them were goats, dogs, wild goats, cows, deer, and even an ostrich, all nestled within a newly discovered warehouse room in the temple’s northern area.

Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt

A grand building from the Sixth Dynasty unearthed at the Temple of Ramesses II. ( Source )

To truly appreciate the significance of these animal mummies, we must delve into the world of ancient Egyptian beliefs and customs. Mummification of animals, whether cats, dogs, or rams, was a widespread practice. Egyptians held the profound conviction that animals possessed spiritual power and were intimately connected with various deities. Mummification served as a means to preserve not only the animal’s physical form but also its soul, believed to accompany its owner into the afterlife.

In some instances, animals were mummified to honor the gods, while in others, they were offerings to the divine entities. The ram, an emblem of power and fertility, held a prominent place in Egyptian culture, linked to deities like the ram-headed god, Khnum.

Khnum: The Creator and Fertility God

Khnum, the deity associated with the source of the Nile, was believed to have molded the first humans on a potter’s wheel, using clay from the Nile. A symbol of fertility, creation, and rebirth, Khnum’s image typically featured the body of a man with the head of a ram. Temples throughout Egypt paid homage to this divine figure, and the ram, as a sacred animal, was often mummified, either as a gesture of worship or as a symbol of power and fertility. The profound influence of the ram god reverberates through ancient Egyptian art, religion, and mythology.

Unearthing the Past: A History of Mummified Rams

Egyptian archaeologists have made notable discoveries in the past concerning mummified rams. In 2009, a tomb housing 50 mummified rams was uncovered in the Karnak temple complex in Luxor. In 2014, an even more striking find emerged: a mummified ram with gilded horns and an intricate collar was discovered in an ancient cemetery in Abydos. However, the recent revelation of over 2000 Mummified Rams dwarfs these previous discoveries. Many of these heads are adorned, indicating their purpose as offerings.

The Sixth Dynasty Palatial Wonder

In addition to the mummified heads, the archaeological team from New York University’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World stumbled upon an extraordinary structure. This palatial edifice hails from the Sixth Dynasty, a period of immense importance in ancient Egypt’s history. Spanning from approximately 2323 to 2150 BC, this era witnessed the construction of grand monuments, including pyramids and temples. The pharaohs of the Sixth Dynasty were famed for their military campaigns, expanding Egypt’s dominion into Nubia and Libya.

This remarkable discovery is set to reshape our understanding of Abydos during this era and the activities predating the establishment of Ramesses II’s temple.

Unveiling the Temple’s Mysteries

The mission’s accomplishments extend beyond the mummified heads and the palatial structure. They also unveiled parts of the northern wall enclosing the Temple of Ramesses II, a site hidden from our comprehension for over 150 years.

Further explorations led to the discovery of fragments of statues, remnants of ancient trees, clothing, and even leather shoes. The team’s work continues on-site, promising more revelations about the site’s history. Their diligent study and documentation of the current excavation season provide invaluable insights into the Temple of King Ramesses II and the surrounding area, illuminating the temple’s archaeological and historical significance.


The unearthing of over 2000 Mummified Rams in the Temple of King Ramesses II is an archaeological marvel that transcends time. This discovery not only reaffirms the enduring reverence for Ramesses II but also sheds light on the profound significance of the ram in ancient Egyptian culture and spirituality. Coupled with the revelation of a Sixth Dynasty palatial structure, this find reshapes our understanding of Abydos and its history.

As archaeologists continue their meticulous work on-site, we can only anticipate more revelations, adding to the rich tapestry of Egypt’s history. The Temple of King Ramesses II stands as a testament to the enduring legacy of a great pharaoh and the boundless mysteries that continue to captivate us.

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