Menga Dolmen Emerges as the Apex of Neolithic Engineering

Nestled in the heart of Antequera, M├ílaga, Spain, the Menga dolmen, a relic of 5,700 years, astounds archaeologists. Termed as “a paramount engineering achievement of the Neolithic era,” this megalithic structure, perched atop a hill, not only unravels sophisticated building dynamics but also boasts an otherworldly alignment with the surrounding hills, casting a mesmerizing light show for its spectators.

The Techniques Behind Construction

Depicting the quarrying operations involved in extracting the capstone C-5 at Cerro de la Cruz Quarry No. 2 through an artistic representation. ( Source )

In a recent publication in Scientific Reports, a consortium of archaeologists, geologists, and historians meticulously unfolds the concealed facets of Menga dolmen. The construction, employing wood, ropes, and cleared tracks, showcases the adeptness of ancient builders. Of particular note is the strategic planning involved in lifting colossal stones, some surpassing 100 tons, and seamlessly transporting them undamaged to the summit of the sacred hill.

Bridging Modern Technology and Ancient Marvels

The interior dimensions of the Menga dolmen measure 5 meters (16.40 ft) in width and 3 meters (9.84 ft) in height, featuring a creative design that aligns harmoniously with the surrounding mountains. ( Source )

Aquatic Channels and Celestial Alignments

Modern technology plays a pivotal role in exposing the enigma of Menga dolmen. The research team unveils an interlocking pattern around the burial chamber, functioning as water channels to divert seepage, thwart erosion, and guarantee the tomb’s endurance. Moreover, the deliberate alignment of the structure with nearby mountains unfolds intricate light patterns within the chamber, demonstrating an ancient grasp of archaeoastronomy.

Insights from Petrographic and Stratigraphic Analysis

To delve deeper into the stones’ composition, the team employs petrographic and stratigraphic analysis techniques. Petrographic scrutiny involves microscopic examination of rocks to identify minerals and assess texture, while stratigraphic analysis concentrates on rock layers, unraveling Earth’s chronological history. These analyses lay bare the geological processes shaping Menga dolmen over 5,700 years.

A Herculean Labor and Engineering Finesse

a) Geological mapping of tectonic jointing on Digital Terrain Model (DTM), illustrating the positions of Menga and Viera and identifying potential excavation sites at Cerro de la Cruz. b) Representing groups of joints stereographically. c) Providing an overview of the tectonic fracturing evident in quarry areas #2 and #3. ( Source )

Fragile Stones and Grand Scheming

The stones, predominantly calcarenite sedimentary rocks categorized as “soft stones,” present a unique challenge due to their fragility. The team’s analysis underscores the need for a certain level of engineering finesse to orchestrate such an extensive planning and engineering project. Transporting a stone weighing approximately 150 tons, comparable to the liftoff weight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, demands ingenuity beyond imagination.

Pioneering Forward

Various models undergo testing to unravel how these colossal stones were moved undamaged. Methods encompass heavy grass ropes, specialized knots, wooden scaffolds, gravity, and the involvement of off-season farmers. Crucially, cleared and level roads, or ways, are imperative for the stones’ unmarked delivery. This echoes a broader trend where ancient communities erected menhirs while concurrently fashioning long-distance roads, symbolically uniting significant spots in the landscape and sky.


Menga dolmen stands as a testament to ancient engineering prowess, revealing not just a burial site but a masterpiece of Neolithic ingenuity. From interlocking designs to astronomical alignments and meticulous planning, this marvel leaves us in awe of the capabilities of our ancient ancestors.

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